“James, congratulations on your achievements contributing to the field of NLP.”
~ Dr Christina Hall, Society of NLP
..
Wow, James.  This is really impressive!  What a fantastic contribution.  I am very proud of you!
~ Robert Dilts, Master Trainer of NLP and Founder of NLP University
.
James Leong in Suit with IEA (no year) Here’s an excerpt of James Leong’s MBA Dissertation that was submitted to Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge UK in 2011.  His dissertation was on the Effects of First and Third Generations of NLP in Ameliorating the Stress Levels of the Nine Enneagram Types.
.
James Leong, a NLP Master Practitioner and Master Trainer in NLP from Singapore, is the First in the World to complete a MBA Dissertation on Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) and the Enneagram Personality Profiling System.
.
Outside of U.K. and U.S., he is also the First to conduct the “Business NLP Practitioner and Business Master NLP Practitioner Program” in Singapore and Asia.  James Leong is also the Founder of Excellerated Excellence (NLP Singapore), the First NLP Institute in the world to seamlessly integrate the “Enneagram Personality Profiling System” used by the C.I.A. into their NLP Practitioner and NLP Master Practitioner programs as well as Corporate Training Courses.
.
It is interesting to note that before James’ MBA Dissertation, many psychologists have regarded NLP as a pseudo-science.  This is because, in the past, the so-called “evidences” that suggested NLP’s workability were anecdotal or in the form of testimonials.

.

To his fellow NLP Master Trainers in the USA and UK, because of his dedication in making the latest Third Generation NLP technology relevant to Business, Leadership and Executive Coaching, James Leong is affectionately know as the “The NLP Singapore Guy” as well as “Innovator of NLP.”

In his dissertation are the results (from objective Controlled Experiments) and statistics to scientifically validate the efficacy of Third Generation NLP’s “Logical Levels Alignment” technique in alleviating stress.

The controlled experiments in this MBA Dissertation meets the minimum standards of ethical approval in research (July 2004) according to Section 3 of the British Psychological Society Guidelines.

MBA Dissertation Title:

A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF TECHNIQUES IN FIRST GENERATION NEURO-LINGUISTIC PROGRAMMING AND THIRD GENERATION NEURO-LINGUISTIC PROGRAMMING IN REDUCING STRESS


James with Malaysian Astronaut Datuk Dr Sheikh

Master NLP Trainer James Leong with Malaysian Astronaut Datuk Dr Sheikh

Master of Business Administration (Merit)
 .
Master Trainer of NLP
(Systemic, NLP New Coding and Third Generation NLP)NLP University, USA
 .
Certified Transformational Entrepreneur
.
Accredited IEA Enneagram Teacher
Professional Member of The International Enneagram Association (IEA), USA
 .
Director and Co-Founder of CJ Empowerment Pte Ltd
(A Ministry of Manpower Licensed Employment Agency)
.
 SME500 Award Winner

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I am indebted to my dissertation supervisor Mr. Anthony Heng and advisors Drs Aaron K. McMahon and Easwaramoorthy Rangaswamy for their generous assistance, guidance and for sending the students in their Bachelor of Business and Master of Business Administration classes to be part of this comparative study.

 

I am grateful for the Neuro-Linguistic Programming expertise and other valuable help provided by Ms Judith DeLozier and Mr. Robert Dilts, both Co-Developers of Third Generation NLP.  Their invaluable assistance and encouragement were essential to me in this study.  I would also like to thank them for creating the tools and skills necessary for “creating a world to which people want to belong.”

 

With regard to the Enneagram, my heartfelt thanks goes to Oscar Ichazo, Dr. Claudio Naranjo, Helen Palmer, Don Riso and Russ Hudson who have inspired me with their teaching of the Enneagram and their valuable insights.  I am also grateful for the many, many hundreds of students who have, by participating in my programs and workshops, taught me about their world through the lens of the Enneagram.

 

James Leong with his Teacher Dr Claudio Naranjo, the Key Source and Authority of the Enneagram

My sincere thanks also goes to my Associate Trainers Mr Raj Revindran and Mr Lance Ong for their encouragements and steadfast friendship over last twelve years, the two of you are amongst the most respected NLP Trainers in Singapore.  I am proud to have you both in my NLP Singapore Team.

Here’s an interesting video by my Enneagram Teacher, the eminent medical doctor and psychiatrist Dr Claudio Naranjo on the Personality and Essence…

 

.

ABSTRACT

Albeit the fact Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) is hugely popular all over the world and with many proponents claiming massive anecdotal evidence that it works, and indeed it is a recognized form of psychotherapy in the UK, NLP has still not been accompanied by knowledge of the empirical underpinnings of the concept nor has the academic community shown much interest in its developments.

 

The first objective was to explore how traditional First Generation NLP and its latest development, the Third Generation NLP, help to ameliorate stress.  The researcher compared the effectiveness of the popular “Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP” and the newer technique known as “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP” in the reduction of stress.  By doing so, the researcher was able to provide a fair amount of empirical evidence in support of NLP’s workability.

 

The second objective was to establish the effectiveness of NLP on the different Enneagram Personality Types in ameliorating stress.  The Enneagram is an ancient method of personality classification that originated around 2500 B.C.  Enneagram theory put forward that humans could be categorized into nine main personality types.  The researcher noted that the Enneagram theory has identified the different internal motivations of each personality type and pointed out that individuals respond differently to NLP.

The third objective of this study is to determine how the different Enneagram Personality Types actually rate the perceived severity of the different types of stress based on a 7-point scale questionnaire.

This experimental research involved two test groups with a total of sixty test subjects, and another two control groups a total of sixty control group subjects.  Results of T-Tests determined that with the two test groups, there was noticeable reduction of stress levels after experiencing the processes compared with before.

 

1.0.  INTRODUCTION

This dissertation is mainly a comparative study on how to ameliorate stress using the “Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP”, and the “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP”.

The concept of stress came about in the 1930’s when Hans Selye discovered that a set of bodily and actually took place when an organism is exposed to stressors such as extreme heat, cold, toxics etc.  He came to refer to this as stress, where stress was the consequence of any demand upon the body (Selye, 1946).  Since then stress has developed into a widely used concept within both the medical and social sciences.

 

In today’s workplace, stress is a widespread and costly problem.  The Northwestern National Life Insurance Company (1991) reported one-quarter of employees view their jobs as the number one stressor in their lives.  According to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, their finding suggests that stress is the major cause of turnover in organizations (NIOSH, 1999).  According to Sauter, Hurrell, Murphy and Levi (1997), there are numerous studies to suggest that psychologically demanding jobs that employees have little control over the work process can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.  Therefore if NLP can be proven effective in alleviating stress, it may be another arsenal in preventing stress-related diseases.

Chapter 2 of this dissertation will  (1) review the latest studies and findings in the causes of stress, (2) review a numerous literature in the field of NLP and the Enneagram as well as the latest development of these fields of study.  The essential principles of NLP and the Enneagram are presented in brief with some indication of the extensiveness of applications of these two rapidly expanding fields of knowledge.

 

Chapter 3 gives an in-depth breakdown of the Research Methodology

 

Chapter 4 provides an analysis and interpretation of the data collected during this comparative study.

 

Chapter 5 includes a summary, lessons learned and recommendations for further research.

 

1.1.  Objectives

Although there are limited, sporadic literature in the utilization of NLP in the field of management (e.g. Ashok and Santhakumar, 2002; Georges, 1996), there is no such experimental research that investigated the effectiveness of the two forms of NLP (First and Second Generations) as a means of reducing stress.

 

The main objective of this research is to examine the relative effectiveness of the selected techniques in these two forms of NLP in the reduction of stress.  The two techniques and forms of NLP are namely the “Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP” and the newer technique known as “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP”.  By doing so, the researcher was able to provide a fair amount of empirical evidence in support of NLP’s workability.

The results of the test groups were compared with their respective control groups.  The next objective of this study is to address the matter raised in Einspruch & Forman (1985) – That there is a lack of qualified and experienced NLP-trained researchers conducting experiments.

 

Although Einspruch & Forman (1985) defended NLP, neither these two researchers nor anyone else has conducted experiments to show the contrary.  The researcher in the current study is not only a Master Practitioner and Trainer but also a Certified Master Trainer in NLP certified by the Co-Developers of Third Generation NLP Mr. Robert Dilts and Ms. Judith DeLozier.  The researcher has over a decade of related experience in applying NLP in the areas of Corporate Trainings, Sales and Team Development, and he is the first person in the Singapore to train the first group of School Counselors in NLP and the Enneagram Personality Profiling System.  The researcher has also trained numerous Singapore Army Officers in NLP, Enneagram and Leadership.

 

Long before the Co-Developers of Third Generation NLP, Dilts and DeLozier started to place emphasis on “Identity Coaching” in their form of NLP, the researcher has already incorporated Enneagram Personality Profiling System in his Certified Business NLP Practitioner and NLP Master Practitioner Programs.  According to Dilts and Dilts (n.d.), “The process of coaching at the identity level helps people to identify these fundamental fears in the form of what might be called “demons” and “shadows” – feelings and parts of ourselves that we have become disconnected from and do not want to face.  It then supports people to find the resources necessary for them to change their relationship to these fears, reopen the “channel” and live from a place of deeper connection, faith and trust.”  The Enneagram compliments the Third Generation NLP’s Identity Coaching in that “the cognitive/emotional structure of the Enneagram can be a useful guide for understanding and transforming our personalities…” (Palmer 1991, p. xv).  The Enneagram also outlines the core (and often hidden) motivation driving of each personality type, and provides a map for transforming personality traits that are not in line with such higher values as honesty, compassion, and courage.  The researcher’s positive intension is to help his students understand their own Enneagram Personality Types and then proceed to adapting and customizing NLP according to their own unique personality types.

 

The second objective of this research is to find out how well NLP works in helping the different Enneagram types to alleviate stress.

The third objective of this study is to determine how the different Enneagram Personality Types actually rate the perceived severity of the different types of stress based on a 7-point scale questionnaire.

 

 

2.0.  LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1.  Definition Of Stress

Stress is defined as “a complex pattern of emotional states, physiological reactions and related thoughts in response to external demands.”  Examples of such demands are demands of work assignments and interpersonal relations between co-workers, spouse and children.  Strain is the accumulated effects of stress expressed as deviations from normal patterns of behavior or activity i.e. a consequence to prolonged exposure to stressful events (Greenberg and Baron 2000).

 

Therefore, it is understandable that most literature on stress investigates the causes, symptoms, perceptions, and consequences of work-related stress (Munro, Rodwell, & Harding, 1998; Tyson, Pongruengphant & Aggarwal, 2001).

 

2.1.1.  Causes Of Stress At Work

Stress at work is an ever-present and multifaceted phenomenon (Lazarus, 1993) that is costly for organizations because it contributes to expensive voluntary turnover (Parasuraman & Alutto, 1984).  It is the second most commonly reported work-related health problem across Europe, according to the Third European Survey on Working Conditions (Paoli and Merllie, 2001) and research has pointed out that work related stress could lead to coronary heart disease (Breslow and Buell, 1980).  Examples of causes of work related stress are longer working hours and loss of lifelong career paths (Cooper and Locke, 2000).

 

According to Treven & Potocan (2005), apart from loss of health, “Mistakes and/or false decisions, which employees make under the effect of stress, are even more costly than loss of health.”  Gilboa, Shirom, Fried & Cooper (2008) found work-related stressors such as work-family conflict, role ambiguity, role conflict, role overload, job insecurity, environmental uncertainty, and situational constraints have negative correlation with job performance.  Specifically situational constraints and role ambiguity had the utmost negative correlation with work related performance.  Stress, in turn, has a negative impact on various organizational outcomes such as job satisfaction, production, absenteeism, turnover, and organizational commitment (Fairbrother & Warn, 2003; Snelgrove, 1998).

 

Earlier research has revealed that work stress not only results in increased blood pressure at work, however these physiological reactions continue after the employees have left work for home, and these potentially health-impairing responses to jobs are carried over to home settings and this in turn posed a high long-term risk of health impairment (Fox, Dwyer, & Ganster, 1993).  In addition the cost to employers’ health care expenditures, the societal cost is another critical issue to be resolved.

 

2.2.  Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP)

This section of the chapter will provide a historic perspective to the advancement of Neuro-Linguistic Programming from its early developmental stages at the University of California at Santa Cruz (UCSC) in the early 1970’s until its current extensive developments.  This chapter also includes the major concepts of NLP.

 

The following is a definition of Negro-Linguistic Programming and its applications.

 

“Neuro” stands for the fundamental tenet that all behavior is the result of neurological processes.  “Linguistic“ indicates that neural processes are represented, ordered, and sequenced into models and strategies through language and communication systems.  “Programming“ refers to the process of organizing the components of a system to achieve a specific outcome. (Dilts, 1983, p 3)

 

Today NLP has achieved much popularity as a method for psychotherapy, management, education, sales and communications.  According to Tosey and Mathison (2003), “NLP has burgeoned into one of the world’s most popular forms of inter-personal skill and communication training.  The UK Association for NLP, for example, lists over 50 training organizations and estimates that around 150,000 people (in the UK, we assume) had had some training in NLP by the end of the year 2000.1 NLP is used, whether explicitly or otherwise, by professional practitioners of many kinds – educators, managers, trainers, sales people, market researchers, counselors, consultants, medics, lawyers and more.  There are a number of competing NLP accrediting bodies or professional associations worldwide.  In the UK, NLP is a recognized psychotherapy (assigned to the Experiential Constructivist Therapies section) accredited by the UK Council for Psychotherapy2… There is interest too from associations such as the Society for Effective Affective Learning (SEAL).3

 

2.2.1.  History Of NLP

Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) was co-founded by Richard Bandler and John Grinder at the University of California at Santa Cruz around 1972 (Jacobson, 1994; McLendon, 1989).  Prior to NLP’s development, Richard Bandler had first been a student of Mathematics, Computer Programming and later Gestalt Psychology. John Grinder was an Assistant Professor of Linguistics at UCSC.  Their spouses, Leslie Cameron-Bandler and Judith DeLozier, also contributed significantly, as did other early developers such as Frank Pucelik, Robert Dilts and David Gordon.

 

According to Daniel Goleman (1979), in his article in Psychology Today, “The People who Read People”, Bandler had been trying to build models of effective therapy and involved Grinder to join him in the effort.  Besides being a linguist, Grinder was a former “Green Beret” (known officially as the United States Army Special Forces, they are trained in languages, culture, diplomacy, psychological warfare, disinformation – generating and spreading false information – and politics).  He was seconded to the Central Intelligence Agency for undercover assignments during the 1960’s in the Middle East; and he was required to cultivate the ability to imitate the physiology as well as the speaking patterns of individuals from different regions.  Bandler and Grinder spent many months studying some of the most gifted therapists such as Dr. Milton H. Erickson with his indirect form of conversational hypnotherapy, Dr. Virginia Satir with her style of counseling called “Con-Joint Family Therapy”, and Dr. Fritz Perls with his Gestalt Therapy.  Rather than focusing their attention on the formal theory from which their practice drew, Bandler and Grinder was more curious about what was the difference that made a difference between these excellent therapists and others.  The focus was on what these gifted therapists did in practice, especially their patterns of communication and interaction.

 

There is without a doubt NLP is eclectic and it draws from a wide diversity of sources.  Several of the basic foundations for NLP were the more humanistic psychological concepts along with the work transformational grammar (Grinder and Elgin, 1973), behavioral psychology and cybernetics (Ashby, 1965).  The cybernetic aspect is reflected, for instance, in NLP’s adoption of the TOTE (test-operate-test-exit) mode of functioning (Miller, Galanter, & Pribram, 1960), which depends on the dynamics of calibration and feedback (Bateson, 1972; Wiener, 1965).  Other sources include Alfred Korzybski’s 1933 classic “Science and Sanity” and his seminal concepts such as “The Map is not the Territory”.  “Important characteristics of maps should be noted.  A map is not the territory it represents, but, if correct, it has a similar structure to the territory, which accounts for its usefulness.”  The Territory in this case is reality or the universe or world, the map is your internal model of reality or the universe or the world, and the actual territory is not in your mind, only your map of it.  This means that no two individuals can have exactly the same map.  Problems in communication often arise when we try to impose our map upon another individual.  It is by being able to distinguish the structure of another individual’s map that will allow us to “see the world though their eyes” and hence comprehend and relate to others respectfully and precisely.

 

Dilts & DeLozier (2000), in their “Encyclopedia of Systemic Neuro-Linguistic Programming and NLP New Coding” suggest that “NLP is both a way of being (an ‘ontology’) and a way of knowing (an ‘epistemology’).  At the core of NLP (as an ontology) is a set of fundamental presuppositions about communication, choice, change, and the intentions behind our behaviors.  At the heart of NLP (as an epistemology) is modeling – an ongoing process for expanding and enriching your map of the world through awareness, flexibility, multiple perspectives and personal congruence.”

 

2.2.2.  Distinction Between the First, Second and Third Generation of NLP

(Source: http://www.nlpu.com/ThirdGenerationNLP.html)

First generation NLP was the original model of NLP derived by Bandler and Grinder from their study of effective therapists. These early applications of NLP were all applied one-on-one, with the focus almost entirely on the individual.

 

First generation NLP presupposed a therapeutic relationship in which the therapist knew what was best for his or her client. NLP was considered something which one “did to other people.” This led to some NLP applications as seeming to be manipulative when used in non-therapeutic contexts.

Most of the first generation tools and techniques (such as the meta model, anchoring, eye accessing cues, predicates, 6-step reframing, etc.) were focused on problem solving at level of behavior and capabilities.

 

Second generation NLP began to emerge in the mid to late 1980s. At this time, NLP was expanding to embrace other issues beyond the therapeutic context. While still focused on individuals, second generation NLP emphasized the relationship between oneself and others and widened to include such areas of application as negotiation, sales, education and health.

The tools of NLP also expanded to include higher level issues, such as those related to beliefs, values and “meta programs.” Second generation NLP techniques integrated the use of new distinctions such as time lines, submodalities and perceptual positions into formats like reimprinting, conflict integration, the Disney strategy and the Swish Pattern.

 

Third generation NLP has been developing since the 1990s. The applications of third generation NLP are generative, systemic and focused at even higher levels of learning, interaction and development – including those relating to identity, vision and mission.

Third generation NLP emphasizes whole system change and can be applied to organizational and cultural development as well as to individuals and teams.  The techniques of third generation NLP are “field based,” incorporating principles of self-organization, archetypes and what is known as “fourth position” – a whole system perspective.

The tools of third generation NLP are founded upon alignment, a multi-level perspective and the skills of sponsorship. The assumption of third generation NLP is that the wisdom needed for change is already in the system and can be discovered and released by creating the appropriate context.

 

2.3.  History Of The Enneagram

According to Riso and Hudson (1999, p 20-22), the Enneagram symbol originated around 2500 B.C. in Babylon.  It was first brought to the attention of the modern world by George Ivanovich Gurdjieff, the originator of an institute of spiritual development near Paris in the 1930s.  Gurdjieff stated that a person did not understand anything completely until he or she understood it in terms of the Enneagram, that is, until he or she could correctly place the elements of a process at the correct points on the Enneagram, thereby seeing the interdependent and mutually sustaining parts of the whole.  However, Gurdjieff did not teach the Enneagram of personality types.  The origins of that Enneagram are more recent and are based on two principal modern sources.

The first is Oscar Ichazo.  Ichazo admitted he came in contact with the Gurdjieff’s ideas of the Enneagram in the early 1950s (Source: Letter To The Transpersonal Community, 2011).

 

Ichazo then further assigned descriptions to each of the nine positions on the Enneagram diagram he called the Enneagram of Ego Fixations, which was the origination of the “Enneagram of Personality” as we know it today.  The second source of the Enneagram of personality types was noted psychiatrist Claudio Naranjo, a former 1962 Fulbright Scholar at Harvard University.  He studied with Ichazo in Chile in 1970 and further developed it, articulating the nine types in Western psychological terms.  In the early 1970s, Naranjo then taught his interpretation of the Enneagram to his students in Berkeley, California (Riso and Hudson, 1999, p 22-24).  He then set up panels for gathering empirical information on each personality type in the course of his psychiatric work (Enneagram History and Origins: The Traditional Enneagram, n.d.).

Enneagram Teachers Don Riso and Russ Hudson went on to add new features to the Enneagram system such as elaborate systematic descriptions of each type and within-type levels of development (Riso and Hudson, 1999, p 24-25).

The Enneagram symbol is a circle, enclosing nine equidistant points connected by nine intersecting lines (see Figure 2.1).  The nine points represent the different ways in which the nine underlying personalities constituting the Enneagram perceive and defend their “mental models” or realities.  The mental model that each person possesses determines not only how individuals make sense of the world, but also how they take action (Palmer, 1995, p 21).

 

Figure 2.1. The Enneagram Symbol

 

Enneagram Type Name* Focus of Attention
One Perfectionist Getting things right
Two Helper Helping others
Three Achiever Getting things done successfully
Four Individualist Finding what’s missing
Five Investigator Knowledge & information
Six Loyalist Anticipating danger
Seven Enthusiast Exciting possibilities
Eight Challenger Power, control and justice
Nine Peacemaker Getting along with others / seeing all points of view

*The nine personality types are often described by names which characterize the way persons of that type commonly approach life” (Wiltse (2001,p.8). Different Enneagram schools use variations of these names.  According to Nathans (2003,p.72), the ‘focus of attention’ means that to which the mind goes automatically, not to that which a person consciously directs his attention.

James Leong sharing the Enneagram with Assistant Professor (Dr) Lana Khong of The National Institute of Education

2.3.1.  Principles Of The Enneagram

The Enneagram opens the doors of communication in many ways. Communication begins with the self. The better one knows oneself, the easier it is to communicate effectively with others. Figure 2.7 highlights the internal structure of lines connecting the personality points, which define instinctive paths taken towards happiness or stress.  One line connects with a type that represents how a person of the first type behaves when they are moving toward health and growth. This is called the Direction of Integration or Growth. The other line goes to another type that represents how the person is likely to act out if they are under increased stress and pressure—when they feel they are not in control of the situation (How the Enneagram Personality System Works, n.d.).

 

Although there are valuable spiritual and philosophical aspects to the Enneagram, this dissertation will focus on the personality traits, drives and motives of each of the nine personality types. Each of the nine types has its own world-view, possesses its own gift, and is propelled by an unconscious drive (Palmer, 1995, p 21).

 

3.0.  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1.  Introduction

According to the Founders of NLP, Bandler and Grinder (1979), NLP can be used to cure phobias and other unpleasant feeling and/or responses in less than an hour.  However, Sharpley (1984) reports that the amount of published data supporting NLP as a viable model for therapeutic change is minimal.  This is true until today. Nevertheless, many skilled NLP trainers have a wealth of clinical data indicating that this model is highly effective. “Clearly these practitioners would provide a service to the field by presenting their data in the literature so they may be critically evaluated” Einspruch and Forman (1985).

 

According to Dilts and DeLozier (2000), from the NLP perspective, stress is a natural by-product of change.  The issue in not so much about avoiding stressful situations as it is about how to cope effectively with stress.  In the NLP view, even though we often cannot choose what happens in the environment around us, however we can choose how we respond to environmental stimuli and situations.  The same event can produce negative health consequences or not, depending on how we respond in relationship to it.  NLP provides a variety of tools, techniques and skills that extend traditional methods of stress management in order to help people to respond more resourcefully and ecologically to stressful situations.  Also, although the researcher has for many years included the Enneagram Personality Profiling System in his “Business NLP Practitioner Programs”, there is till now no empirical study on how well NLP works in helping the different Enneagram Personality Types to alleviate stress.  This study will be the first in the world to do so.

 

 

3.2.  Research Design

As cited by Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2009), research design is “the general plan of how you will go about answering your research question(s)”.  The plan has in it clear objectives and research question(s), specifies the sources from which researcher intends to collect data, and considers the limitations and constraints that the researcher will unavoidably have.  It also explains and elaborates how the data will be analyzed.

 

3.3.  Aims And Objectives Of The Study

Einspruch and Forman (1985) have cited many researches that have attempted to query the applicability of NLP.  However, they have defended NLP stated that “NLP is far more complex than presumed by researchers, and thus, the data are not true evaluations of NLP” and they have also added that NLP is difficult to assess under the traditional counseling psychology framework.

 

Einspruch and Forman claimed that those “failed” researches were flawed as their researchers were not properly certified as trainers, master practitioners or even practitioners in NLP.  As such, Einspruch and Forman criticized research and experiments that had resulted in the outcomes of the test groups being no different from the control groups.

 

They both revealed that all of the 39 empirical studies reviewed by Sharpley (1987) have failed to offer adequate investigator training.  For instance, in Dowd and Hingst’s (1983) study, students who had no knowledge of therapy were trained for only a total of 6 hours, in comparison to a standard Practitioner Certification course that is 120 hours!  One of the objectives of this study is to provide empirical support for Einspruch & Forman.

The second objective of this research is to find out how well NLP works in helping the different Enneagram Personality Types to alleviate stress.  Thus far, no one has conducted any controlled experiments to ascertain the efficacy of the different generations of NLP on the different Enneagram Personality Types for the alleviation of stress.

The third objective of this study is to determine how the different Enneagram Personality Types actually rate the perceived severity of the different types of stress based on a 7-point scale questionnaire.  From the researcher’s knowledge and literature search, there were no such studies done so far.

 

 

3.4.  Research Questions

This study raises two basic issues to be questioned from which the research and its findings will be simulated.  Those questions are as follows:

 

Major Research Questions:

  • Does Neuro-Linguistic Programming work for the alleviation of stress?
  • Between the “Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP” and “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP”, which process is more effective for the alleviation of stress?

 

Minor Research Questions:

  • Between the “Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP” and “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP”, which process is more effective for the alleviation of stress for each of the nine Enneagram Personality Types?
  • Are there differences in how each of the nine Enneagram Personality Types rank the severity of the seven causes of stress listed in the questionnaire?

 

 

3.5.  Research Approach

There are two main approaches to a research design:

  • Quantitative Research
  • Qualitative Research

 

In a nutshell, quantitative research produces numerical data or information that can be converted into numbers. Conversely, qualitative research generates non-numerical data. It is centered on gathering of mainly verbal data rather than measurements.  The information collected is then analyzed in an interpretative manner, subjective, impressionistic or even diagnostic.

 

The primary goal of a Qualitative Research is to provide a comprehensive and detailed description of the research topic.  Quantitative Research, in contrast, focuses more on counting and classifying features and constructing statistical models and figures to explain what is observed.

The presentation of data in a Qualitative Research is mostly based on the researcher’s own description, emotions and reactions.  ‘Qualitative researchers make considerable use of inductive reasoning: They make many specific observations and then draw inferences about larger and more general phenomena’. (Leedy & Ormrod, 2005, p 96).  It seeks to comprehend human behavior and reasons that direct such behavior.

 

In Quantitative Research, the methods utilized can demonstrate, by before and after tests, what change has occurred; and, by surveys, how generally and frequently it occurred.  This is because Quantitative Research is based on numbers and statistics that are presented in figures.  According to Leedy & Ormrod (2005, p 96), quantitative researchers tend to rely heavily on deductive reasoning, beginning with certain premises (e.g., hypotheses, theories) and then by making logical deductions from them.

 

 

3.6.  Data Collection

There are two main approaches to data collection namely, primary and the secondary data.

 

3.6.1.  Primary Data

Malhotra and Birks (2007, p 94) state that primary data is originated by the researcher specifically to address the research problem.  Primary data are original information gotten for a research (Burns, 2000).  This could be in the form of interviews, direct observation, practical observation documentation, archival records and physical artifacts (Yin, 2003).

For the purpose of this dissertation, the researcher is employing a four-part questionnaire as his primary data source.

 

 

3.6.2.  Secondary Data

Saunders et al. (2009) recognize three forms of secondary data used in research; they are documentary, survey, and multiple sources.  It is very common that researchers collect existing published data from a variety of sources.  Examples of documentary sources are: organization websites, journals, newspapers, diaries, administrative and public records.  Survey-based secondary data include government surveys, academic surveys, and organization surveys.  Multiple sources are mainly collected through government publications, industry statistics and reports.

One of the advantages of using secondary data is the relatively low cost of acquiring it.  Secondly, the researcher is able to analyze far and larger data sets.  Secondary data may be external or internal sources.

 

3.7.  Research Strategy

The research strategy can be explained as the overall plan of how the researcher carries out the necessary research in a trial to answer the outlined questions.  Saunders et al. (2009) believe that any strategy must have clear objectives and specified sources of data.  In addition, it must highlight the constraints that the researcher might encounter.  These constraints include the availability of data, time, location, finance, and ethical issues.

 

Yin (2003) describes that, in social sciences, five main strategies are used to conduct research:

  • Archival analysis: used upon lack of control over behavioral events. It is also beneficial in description of incidence or prevalence of a phenomenon or in prediction of certain outcomes.
  • Case Studies: empirical investigation of a particular contemporary phenomenon within its real life context using multiple sources of evidence.
  • Experiments: a classic form of research related to natural sciences used extensively in social science research, especially, psychology.
  • Histories: chronological events and narratives related to a research topic.
  • Surveys: associated with deductive approach used in business and management researches.

 

Yin (2003) advocates that selecting appropriate strategy should be based on the form of the research questions, the control of the actual behavioral and contemporary events.  These concepts and strategies are illustrated in Table 3.1.

 


Table 3.1 Summary of relevant situations of different research strategies (Yin, 2003)

Strategy Form of Research Question Requires Control Over Behavioral Events Focuses On Contemporary Events
Archival analysis Who, What, Where, How many, How much? No Yes/No
Case studies How, Why? No Yes
Experiment How? Why? Yes Yes
Histories How, Why? No No
Survey Who, What, Where, How many, How much? No Yes

 

This study attempts to measure the effects of Neuro-Linguistic Programming represented in “Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP” and “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP” on stress.  As such, an experimental strategy is employed to gain a more profound under standing of the research topic. For all of this, it is both a deductive and quantitative research.

 

3.8.  Questionnaire

The questionnaire used in this researched has four parts.

 

Part one was a set of personal information questions such as gender, educational level, age, monthly income, and a question that ranks the severity of seven causes of stress based on a 7-point scale (Of the 7-point scale, “1” means least severe – “7’ means very severe).

The second part of the questionnaire was the Riso-Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator (RHETI) Sampler; this is a free Enneagram test consisting of 36 questions of the full, independently scientifically validated 144-question RHETI personality inventory  (RHETI Sampler, n.d.).  Specifically, the RHETI Sampler is a questionnaire of 36 pairs of statements in a forced-choice format that yields a rich cache of information not only about the user’s main personality type but also about other major personality structures.

The third part of the questionnaire was a 10-point scale that ranked the intensity of stress (Of the 10-point scale, ‘1’ means no stress – ‘10’ means very stress and tensed).

The fourth part of the questionnaire which ranked the intensity of stress based on a 10-point scale. (Of this 10-point scale, ‘1’ means no stress – ‘10’ means very stress and tensed).

 

 

3.9.  Research Method

One hundred and twenty students from Amity Business School participated in this study in 2011.  Sixty students were doing their Bachelors in Business Administration (BBA), while the other sixty were doing their Masters in Business Administration (MBA).

 

On the 11th March 2011, the researcher conducted the controlled experiment on the sixty BBA students to establish the efficacy of the “Dissociative Technique of the First Generation NLP” to relieve stress.  Of the sixty BBA students who participated in this research, thirty students were selected as part of the first test group to undergo the Dissociative Technique of the First Generation NLP while the remaining thirty BBA students were part of the control group.

There are a total of four parts to the questionnaire to be completed in this research.  Forty-five minutes, prior to the experiment, both the test and control groups were given the questionnaire and instructed to only complete part one and two of the questionnaire.

 

The third part of the questionnaire was to be completed after the researcher has gotten the members of both the test and control groups to remember an unresolved event that they still felt stressed about.  They are to remember it vividly and associate themselves into the memory i.e. see through the first person view.

Right after completing the third part of the questionnaire, those members who belonged to the control group were ushered outside the classroom, and they were only instructed to continue holding the unresolved stressful event in their minds.  Those belonging to the test group were then guided through the “Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP” that took twenty-five minutes.

 

This technique involved seeing the event from the third person‘s perspective and is followed by changing the “submodalities” of the mental picture or representation, that is by changing mental picture from color to black and white, reduce the clarity and size and gradually pushing the picture further and further away from them.

Right after this, the control group was brought back into the classroom and both the test and control groups were then instructed to complete the fourth part of the questionnaire.

Then on the 25th April 2011, the researcher conducted the second controlled experiment on the sixty MBA students to establish the efficacy of the “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP” to relieve stress.  The aforesaid steps were carried out for both the test and control groups, however in place of the “Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP” is the “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP”.

In order to maintain consistency and to minimize variables that might affect the final results, the researcher has continued use the same air-conditioned classroom at the Amity Business School for both the controlled experiments; the same amount of lighting was provided for the two test groups.  The temperature was also maintained at twenty-three degrees Celsius for both test groups.  As Mehrabian, Albert; Wiener, Morton (1967) states that 38% of the impact of communication is determined by our tone of voice or vocal tonality, the researcher was also mindful to use the same soothing and calming tonality for both the test groups.

On analyzing all the above-mentioned research methods, it was clear that the Quantitative approach would best serve the purpose of this research.

 

 

3.10.  Ethical Considerations

According to Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2009), ethics has important implications for the negotiation of access to people and organizations and the collection of data.  The general ethical issue is that the research design should not subject those the researcher is researching (the research population) to embarrassment harm or any other material disadvantage.  The research questions were aimed to be as general as possible and require ranking the intensity of stress (for example a 10-point scale).  It was left on the respondent to answer questions as confidentially as he/she wants them to be disclosed.

3.11.  Data Analysis

The empirical study was completed by means of a mainly quantitative research design.  Data was collected before and after the experiments via the questionnaire used.  One hundred and twenty completed questionnaires were received and the software, Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 16.0, was used to analyze the questionnaire data in this empirical study.

 

The findings of the empirical study are described below.

 

4.0.  THE RESULTS(Only selected sections of the MBA Dissertation is shown here)

Education Level of the Respondents

Education is one of the predominant aspects to consider when it comes to the origin of stress and to some extent the management of stress.  It has a very significant relation to the overcoming of the stress as well.  The table below shows the Education level of the Respondents.

 

Table 4.1: Education Level of the Respondents

Education Level of the Respondents Number of Respondents(Test and Control Groups inclusive) Percent
Advanced Level 60 50
Diploma 13 10.8
Bachelor’s Degree 41 34.2
Master’s Degree 4 3.3
Professional Qualifications 2 1.7
Total 120 100.0

 

The above table shows that 50% of the respondents have Advanced Level qualifications, almost 11% of the respondents have at least a Diploma and nearly 35% of the respondents have a degree. Overall almost all the respondents are educated adequately to handle stress, if at all education plays a role in the stress management.  Also the table highlights that none of respondents are non-educated or less educated.  All the sixty Bachelors of Business students are pursing their degree on a full-time basis, while the remaining sixty are working executives pursuing their Masters of Business Administrations.

All the Bachelors of Business students took part as respondents for the test and control groups of the “Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP”.  The working executives pursuing their Masters of Business Administrations took part as respondents for the test and control groups of the “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP”.

 

 

Gender of Participants in the Test and Control Groups

Below is the total number of people including the percentages of females and males in the test and control groups.

 

Table 4.2: Gender Of Respondents Who Participated In The Test and Control Groups

Gender Number of Respondents Percent
Female 48 40.0
Male 72 60.0
Total 120 100.0

 

The above table shows that a total of 120 people participated in the two experiments.  40% of the respondents were females and 60% were males.

 

 

Table 4.3: Gender of Test Group for First Generation NLP Experiment

Gender Number of Respondents Percent
Female 12 40
Male 18 60
Total 30 100

 

Table 4.4: Gender of Control Group for First Generation NLP

Gender Number of Respondents Percent
Female 8 26.7
Male 22 73.3
Total 30 100

 

Table 4.5: Gender of Test Group for Third Generation NLP

Gender Number of Respondents Percent
Female 11 36.7
Male 19 63.3
Total 30 100


Table 4.6: Gender of Control Group for Third Generation NLP

Gender Number of Respondents Percent
Female 17 56.7
Male 13 43.3
Total 30 100

 

 

Age of Respondents in the Test and Control Groups

 

 

Table 4.7: Age of Respondents for the Test Group

For the “Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP”

Age Number of Respondents Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
17 2 6.7 6.7 6.7
18 6 20.0 20.0 26.7
19 4 13.3 13.3 40.0
20 9 30.0 30.0 70.0
21 6 20.0 20.0 90.0
22 3 10.0 10.0 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0

 

 

Table 4.8: Mean Age of Respondents for the Test Group

For the “Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP”

Number of Respondents 30
Mean 19.67

 

Table 4.9: Age of Respondents for the Control Group

For the “Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP”

Age Number of Respondents Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
18 2 6.7 6.7 6.7
19 11 36.7 36.7 43.3
20 10 33.3 33.3 76.7
21 4 13.3 13.3 90.0
22 2 6.7 6.7 96.7
27 1 3.3 3.3 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0

 

 

Table 4.10: Mean Age of Respondents for the Control Group

For the “Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP”

Number of Respondents 30
Mean 20.00

 

The mean age of the participants in the test group for First Generation NLP was 19.67 years, i.e. ranging from 17 to 22.  The mean age of the participants in the control group for First Generation NLP was 20.00 years, i.e. ranging from 18 to 27.  The width of the age range was slightly larger in the control group, but the mean age was similar to the test group.

 

 

Table 4.11: Age of Respondents for the Test Group

For the “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP”

Age Number of Respondents Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
26 4 13.3 13.3 13.3
27 7 23.3 23.3 36.7
28 1 3.3 3.3 40.0
29 3 10.0 10.0 50.0
30 1 3.3 3.3 53.3
31 2 6.7 6.7 60.0
33 4 13.3 13.3 73.3
35 3 10.0 10.0 83.3
36 1 3.3 3.3 86.7
37 2 6.7 6.7 93.3
46 1 3.3 3.3 96.7
47 1 3.3 3.3 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0

 

 

Table 4.12: Mean Age of Respondents for the Test Group

For the “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP”

Number of Respondents 30
Mean 31.33

 

Table 4.13: Age of Respondents for the Control Group

For the “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP”

Age Number of Respondents Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
25 4 13.3 13.3 13.3
26 3 10.0 10.0 23.3
27 1 3.3 3.3 26.7
28 3 10.0 10.0 36.7
29 4 13.3 13.3 50.0
31 1 3.3 3.3 53.3
32 4 13.3 13.3 66.7
34 1 3.3 3.3 70.0
35 5 16.7 16.7 86.7
36 2 6.7 6.7 93.3
41 1 3.3 3.3 96.7
43 1 3.3 3.3 100.0
Total 30 100.0 100.0

 

 

Table 4.14: Mean Age of Respondents for the Control Group

For the “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP”

Number of Respondents 30
Mean 30.97

 

The mean age of the participants in the test group for Third Generation NLP was 31.33 years, i.e. ranging from 26 to 47.  The mean age of the participants in the control group for Third Generation NLP was 30.97 years, i.e. ranging from 25 to 43.  The width of the age range was smaller in the control group, but the mean age was similar to the test group.

 

 

Paired Sample T-Tests

For the test groups, paired sample t-tests were performed using IBM’s Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software to assess the changes in intensity levels of stress before and after the participating in the techniques in First Generation NLP and Third Generation NLP.

 

Screen Shot 2014-03-15 at 12.33.20 pm

Screen Shot 2014-03-15 at 12.36.07 pm 

A paired-sample t-test was conducted to evaluate the impact of the “Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP” on the test group’s scores in the stress test.  There was a statistically significant decrease in the test scores before the intervention (Mean = 6.57, Standard Deviation = 1.478) to after the intervention (Mean = 3.87, Standard Deviation = 1.655), t (29) = 11.704, p < 0.0005 (two-tailed).  The mean decrease in the stress test scores was 2.70 with a confidence interval ranging from 2.228 to 3.172.  The Eta squared statistic (0.825) indicated a large effect size.

 

Screen Shot 2014-03-15 at 12.37.47 pm

 

Screen Shot 2014-03-15 at 12.39.21 pm

 

Screen Shot 2014-03-15 at 12.40.26 pm

 

Similarly, a paired-sample t-test was conducted to evaluate the impact of “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP” on the second test group’s scores in the stress test.  There was a statistically significant decrease in the test scores before the intervention (Mean = 6.63, Standard Deviation = 1.189) to after the intervention (Mean = 1.73, Standard Deviation = 0.785), t (29) = 18.551, p < 0.0005 (two-tailed).  The mean decrease in the stress test scores was 4.900 with a confidence interval ranging from 4.360 to 5.440.  The Eta squared statistic (0.922) indicated a large effect size.

 

There were significant reductions in intensity levels for the two techniques.  As expected no such change was recorded among the control group.  The average score for the participants in the test group before being taught the “Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP” was 6.57.  The average score after the researcher brought them through the “Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP” was 3.87.  T-test showed that the differences were significant at the 0.0005 level.  Although the level of stress was not completely eliminated, the participants reported feeling more relaxed after “Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP”.

 

The average score for the participants in the test group before being brought thought the “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP” was 6.63.  The possible reasons why this score was slightly higher was probably because: (a) the participants were guided to be fully associated into the memory by physically stepping unto a space on the floor and giving a score for the intensity of the stress experienced, and (b) the respondents are all working executives who may have more responsibilities compared to the Bachelors of Business full-time students in the First Generation Controlled Experiment.  After the participants were guided through the “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP”, the average score in terms of intensity of stress plummeted to 1.73.  T-tests showed that the differences were significant at the 0.0005 level.  With the “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP”, fourteen out of the thirty participants managed to completely remove all of their stress within twenty-five minutes.  The rest of the participants were able to experience significant reduction in their levels of stress.

 

Table 4.21: Test Group Mean Scores

First measurement recorded before the procedure Second measurement recorded immediately after the procedure The mean decrease in the stress test scores
Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP 6.57 3.87 2.70
Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP 6.63 1.73 4.90

 

Comparing the different techniques, it can be seen that the average score of the participants after the procedures (at 1.73), were lower for Third Generation NLP compared with First Generation NLP (at 3.87).  Many of the participants were able to remove their stress completely.  As for the rest, the level of stress went down significantly.  The mean decrease in the stress test scores for the “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP” was 4.90 while the “Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP” was 2.70.  This may suggest that the “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP” is a more effective technique to alleviate stress.

 

With regard to the control group, there were no changes in the scores when the second measurement was taken twenty-five minutes later.  The average scores for the control group are as follows:

 

 

Table 4.22: Control Group scores

First measurement Second measurement recorded 25 minutes later
First Generation NLP 6.37 6.37
Third Generation NLP 6.53 6.53

 


Effects of the “Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP” on the stress levels of the Nine Enneagram Types

 

 

Table 4.23: Enneagram Types of the Respondents

Enneagram Type Number of Respondents Percent
Perfectionist 6 5.0
Helper 34 28.3
Achiever 25 20.8
Individualist 8 6.7
Investigator 5 4.2
Loyalist 5 4.2
Enthusiast 11 9.2
Challenger 14 11.7
Peacemaker 12 10.0
Total 120 100.0

From Table 4.23, we can infer that the Enneagram Type Two (Helper) topped the number of respondents in this research at 34, and this is followed by the Enneagram Type Three (Achiever) with 25 respondents.  This may also be indicative that Amity Business School is popular amongst the Helper and Achiever Types as a choice for quality business education.

 

Table 4.25: Effects of the First Generation NLP and

Third Generation NLP on the stress level of Enneagram Type 1

First measurement of Mean Second measurement of Mean recorded 25 minutes later The mean decrease in the stress test scores
“Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP” 5.00 3.33 1.67
“Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP” 6.75 1.50 5.25

 

Table 4.26: Effects of the First Generation NLP and

Third Generation NLP on the stress level of Enneagram Type 2

First measurement of Mean Second measurement of Mean recorded 25 minutes later The mean decrease in the stress test scores
“Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP” 6.86 4.14 2.72
“Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP” 5.71 1.71 4.00

 

Table 4.27: Effects of the First Generation NLP and

Third Generation NLP on the stress level of Enneagram Type 3

First measurement of Mean Second measurement of Mean recorded 25 minutes later The mean decrease in the stress test scores
“Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP” 7.25 4.75 2.50
“Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP” 7.75 1.50 6.25

 

Table 4.28: Effects of the First Generation and

Third Generation NLP on the stress level of Enneagram Type 4

First measurement of Mean Second measurement of Mean recorded 25 minutes later The mean decrease in the stress test scores
“Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP” 4.50 2.50 2.00
“Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP” 7.00 1.67 5.33

 

Table 4.29: Effects of the First Generation NLP and

Third Generation NLP on the stress level of Enneagram Type 5

First measurement of Mean Second measurement of Mean recorded 25 minutes later The mean decrease in the stress test scores
“Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP” 8.50 5.00 3.50
“Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP” 5.00 1.00 4.00

 

Table 4.30: Effects of the First Generation NLP and

Third Generation NLP on the stress level of Enneagram Type 6

First measurement of Mean Second measurement of Mean recorded 25 minutes later The mean decrease in the stress test scores
“Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP” 7.00 4.00 3.00
“Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP” 7.50 1.00 6.50

 

Table 4.31: Effects of the First Generation NLP and

Third Generation NLP on the stress level of Enneagram Type 7

First measurement of Mean Second measurement of Mean recorded 25 minutes later The mean decrease in the stress test scores
“Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP” 6.00 3.00 3.00
“Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP” 7.00 2.33 4.67

 

Table 4.32: Effects of the First Generation and

Third Generation NLP on the stress level of Enneagram Type 8

First measurement of Mean Second measurement of Mean recorded 25 minutes later The mean decrease in the stress test scores
“Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP” 7.00 3.50 3.5
“Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP” 7.33 2.00 5.33

 

Table 4.33: Effects of the First Generation NLP and

Third Generation NLP on the stress level of Enneagram Type 9

First measurement of Mean Second measurement of Mean recorded 25 minutes later The mean decrease in the stress test scores
“Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP” 8.00 4.67 3.33
“Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP” 6.00 3.00 3.00

 

Comparing the two different techniques, for Enneagram Types One to Eight, it can be observed that the mean decrease in the stress test scores were much higher for the “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP” compared with the “Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP”.  This may indicate both the two processes of the First Generation NLP and Third Generation NLP work in alleviating stress in the Enneagram Types One to Eight.  At the same time, the results may also suggest that the “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP” is a more effective process, in alleviating stress, over the “Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP”.

For the Enneagram Type 9, the mean decrease in the stress test scores was lower for the “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP” compared with the “Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP”.  This could partially be due to the fact that the SPSS software has limited the analysis to first 100 cases when the researcher used the “Case Summaries” function in it.

According to Thornton (1996), he observed that Australian Primary School Principals who are Type Threes and Type Twos on the Enneagram are generally more susceptible to stress than others.  With reference to Tables 4.25 to 4.33 mentioned above, it seems that all the Enneagram Personality Types are susceptible to stress.   The reason could be, compared to Thornton’s past study, the researcher’s study here did not include any structured close-quarters observation, and so was unable to observe the susceptible to stress when it happened.


Table 4.34: Causes of Stress and Their Perceived Severity On Each Enneagram Type

(Note: Limited to first 100 cases by SPSS)

Table 4.34: Causes of Stress and Their Perceived Severity On Each Enneagram Type

(Note: Limited to first 100 cases)

 

Causes Of Stress

 

Total

Unemployment

Raising a Family

Illness

Caring For A Dependent Person

Moving House

Death Of A Family Member

Relationship Or Marital

Problems

Enneagram

Type 1:

Perfectionist

Number of Respondents

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

Mean

2.20

2.60

3.80

3.60

3.40

6.20

6.20

Std. Deviation

2.168

1.140

1.304

.548

2.408

1.095

.837

Enneagram

Type 2:

Helper

Number of Respondents

27

27

27

27

27

27

27

Mean

4.22

4.11

4.07

2.67

2.19

5.63

5.11

Std. Deviation

2.082

1.577

1.517

1.271

1.755

1.690

1.739

Enneagram

Type 3:

Achiever

Number of Respondents

21

21

21

21

21

21

21

Mean

3.86

3.86

3.05

3.24

3.14

5.38

5.48

Std. Deviation

1.852

1.558

1.532

1.786

2.330

2.334

.680

Enneagram

Type 4:

Individualist

Number of Respondents

7

7

7

7

7

7

7

Mean

4.14

4.00

3.86

4.00

1.00

5.86

5.71

Std. Deviation

1.773

.816

1.464

1.414

.000

1.864

1.380

Enneagram

Type 5:

Investigator

Number of Respondents

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

Mean

3.75

3.50

5.25

1.75

3.25

5.25

5.25

Std. Deviation

2.062

2.380

1.258

.957

2.062

.957

2.363

Enneagram

Type 6:

Loyalist

Number of Respondents

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

Mean

5.00

4.00

3.50

4.25

1.75

4.50

5.00

Std. Deviation

1.826

1.155

1.732

2.630

1.500

2.887

1.414

Enneagram

Type 7:

Enthusiast

Number of Respondents

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

Mean

4.00

3.10

5.20

3.90

1.40

6.00

4.40

Std. Deviation

1.764

1.595

2.251

1.101

.843

1.333

1.430

Enneagram

Type 8:

Challenger

Number of Respondents

12

12

12

12

12

12

12

Mean

4.75

5.00

3.25

3.08

2.42

5.75

5.00

Std. Deviation

2.491

1.414

2.137

1.240

1.782

1.357

1.477

Enneagram

Type 9:

Peacemaker

Number of Respondents

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

Mean

4.50

2.50

4.40

2.10

3.10

7.00

4.40

Std. Deviation

1.581

1.900

.843

.876

1.197

.000

2.011

 

Number of Respondents

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Mean

4.12

3.79

3.90

3.07

2.43

5.75

5.13

Std. Deviation

1.986

1.653

1.714

1.486

1.844

1.743

1.509

 

Before the experiment, the nine Enneagram Types were requested to answer a questionnaire with a 7-point scale that ranked the severity of seven causes of stress (Of the 7-point scale, “1” means least severe – “7’ means very severe).  From Table 4.34 above, the seven causes of stress that the Enneagram Types have been listed according to what they perceived as the level of severity.

 

  • Most of the Type Ones (Perfectionist) have perceived “Death Of A Family Member” and “Relationship Or Marital Problems” as both having equally degree of severity (The Mean is both at 6.20), while “Illness” is perceived as being slightly less severely stressful (The Mean is 3.80)

 

  • Most of the Type Twos (Helpers) have perceived “Death Of A Family Member” as most severe stressful (The Mean is at 5.63) while “Relationship Or Marital Problems” (The Mean is 5.11) is perceived as being slightly less severely stressful.  “Unemployment” (The Mean is 4.22) is right after “Relationship Or Marital Problems”.

 

  • Most of the Type Threes (Achievers) have perceived “Relationship Or Marital Problems” (The Mean is 5.48) as being most severely stressful, while ”Death Of A Family Member” (The Mean is 5.38) is perceived as being slightly less severely stressful.  “Unemployment” and “Raising a Family” (Both Means are the same at 3.86) is right after “Relationship Or Marital Problems”.

 

  • Most of the Type Fours (Individualist), like the Type Twos, have perceived “Death Of A Family Member” as being most severely stressful (The Mean is 5.86), while “Relationship Or Marital Problems” is perceived as being slightly less severely stressful (The Mean is 5.71).  “Unemployment” (The Mean is 4.14) is right after “Relationship Or Marital Problems”.

 

  • Most of the Type Fives (Investigators) have perceived “Death Of A Family Member”, “Relationship Or Marital Problems” and “Illness” as being all equally severely stressful (All the three respective Means are the same at 5.25).

 

  • Most of the Type Sixs (Loyalist) have perceived “Unemployment” and “Relationship Or Marital Problems” as being equally severe (Both Means are the same at 5.00).  This is followed closely by “Death Of A Family Member” which they perceived to be less severe (The Mean is 4.50).

 

  • Most of the Type Sevens (Enthusiast) have listed “Death Of A Family Member” as being most severely stressful (The Mean is 6.00), this is followed by “Illness” which is perceived as being slightly less severely stressful (The Mean is 5.20).  “Relationship Or Marital Problems” is perceived as below “Illness” in terms of stressfulness (The Mean is 4.40).

 

  • Most of the Type Eights (Challenger) have perceived “Death Of A Family Member” (The Mean is 5.75) as being most severely stressful.  “Raising a Family” and “Relationship Or Marital Problems” are perceived as being all equally severely stressful (All the two respective Means are the same at 5.00).

 

  • Most of the Type Nines (Peacemaker) have perceived “Death Of A Family Member” as being most severe stressful (The Mean is 7.00).  This is followed closely by “Unemployment” which they perceived as less severely stressful (The Mean is 4.50).  “Illness” and “Relationship Or Marital Problems” (All the two respective Means are the same at 4.40) is perceived as below “Unemployment” in terms of severity of stress.

 

4.6.  CONCLUSION

This study compared the relative effectiveness of First Generation NLP with Third Generation NLP.  The two test groups each had thirty individuals and another thirty individuals in each of the two control groups.

Measurements were taken before and after each of the procedure. The absence of changes in the control group in this study and the fact that there were significant reduction in stress levels in the test groups suggest that it was the techniques in the “Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP” and “Logical Level Alignment process Third Generation NLP” that are effective and are responsible for these changes.

Referring to Table 4.21, overall it is reasonable to suggest that the “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP” – when compared with the “Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP” – is more effective for the alleviation of stress of the respondents.

5.0.  ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH

5.1.  Introduction

In just about forty years, NLP has developed from the first attempt at the modeling of Dr Virginia Satir, Dr Fritz Perls and Dr Milton Erickson into an approach to psychotherapy that is now spreading rapidly throughout the United States, Europe and Asia, especially in China.  It is rooted in the principles of neuroscience, psychophysiology, linguistics, cybernetics and communication theory.  According to Bredo (1989, p 36), Anthropologist Gregory Bateson’s “Levels of Learning”, Bateson postulated five levels (L0, L1, L2, L3 and L4 – definitions in Table 5.1).  From the researcher’s perspective, NLP accentuates the conditioning at the level of Learning II (L2), that is, “learning to learn”.

 

Table 5.1: The Levels Of Learning adapted from Bredo (1989)

Level Nature Of Change Learning
Learning IV (L4) “… would be change in Learning III, but probably does not occur in any adult living organism on this earth.” This means the opening the door to uncharted possibilities
Learning III (L3) “… is change in the process of Learning II, e.g. a corrective change in the system of sets of alternatives from which choice is made.” This means the transition of role, outside the box
Learning II (L2) “… is change in the process of Learning I, e.g. a corrective change in the set of alternatives from which choice is made, or it is a change in how the sequence of experience is punctuated”. There is a switch in values and the creation of new options whenever necessary.
Learning I (L1) “… is change in specificity of response by correction of errors of choice within a set of alternatives”. This means selecting from options and learning from feedback.
Learning 0 (L0) “… is characterized by specificity of response, which – right or wrong – is not subject to correction”. This means strict obedience to rules – no “trial and error” and hence no learning takes place.

 

The practitioners of NLP have incorporated the NLP techniques into their own realm of interest and expertise and they have further developed these tools by adapting them for use in their area of interest.  This has created and added to the growing richness in the fields to which NLP has been applied and found to be beneficial to the masses outside of the psychotherapeutic community.  At present, not for profit incorporations such as “The NLP Research and Recognition Project”4 has promoted the vivacity of the cross-fertilization of knowledge, ideas and interdisciplinary studies.  The researcher hopes this and other similar entities will continue to generate new perspectives and prospective to the more established fields of study.

The “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP” is effective because it is a technique that helps an individual align him/herself so that every part of him/her is galvanized in the same direction to reduce stress.  By answering the logical level alignment questions, the individual soon gained a better knowledge and understanding of how he/she can make changes to alleviate stress and achieve his/her goals – It is highly possible these questions has helped the respondents of this test group to make changes at the different levels of belief and values, identity, mission and spirituality.

On the other hand, the “Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP” is valuable in reducing the physiological impact or stress caused by negative memories from the past.  This is carried out by changing the submodality qualities of the mental representations or pictures that represent the stress-producing stimuli.  As a result, even though these two NLP techniques can be used to reduce stress in general, the approach in which each of these techniques operates is distinctively different.

 

One interesting matter raised in this research is that after the session, five respondents from the “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP” test group have reported to the researcher that they prefer to have private one-to-one coaching sessions rather than to be part of large group sessions.  With regard to both test groups, some respondents have expressed the need for longer duration while others have commented the duration of twenty-five minutes was too lengthy and they start to lose focus of the instructions given by the researcher.  From these valuable feedbacks, the researcher gathered that group sessions could not accommodate the different preferences of the respondents in the respective test groups.

 

In addition, there are nine respondents from the “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP” test group reported that by going through the process, they found solutions to the challenges that were giving them stress.  According to Thomson and Khan (2008), “A growing body of research suggests that health is a product of dynamic equilibrium – the ability to respond to challenge – rather than an absence of imbalance”.  This corresponds with Richard Bandler’s assertion that effectively applied NLP should increase the choice available to the subject, rather than simply remove the problem-response.”  In this context, the “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP” was beneficial in helping these nine respondents in increasing choice and finding solutions to their challenges.

 

“A growing body of research suggests that health is a product of dynamic equilibrium – the ability to respond to challenge – rather than an absence of imbalance”.

 

5.2.  Research Questions

Major Research Questions:

  • Does Neuro-Linguistic Programming work for the alleviation of stress?

From the controlled experiments, there are significant results to suggest that Neuro-Linguistic Programming works for the alleviation of stress.

 

  • Between the “Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP” and “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP”, which process is more effective for the alleviation of stress?

Overall, there are significant results to suggest that the “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP” is more effective than the “Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP” for the alleviation of stress.

Minor Research Questions:

  • Between the “Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP” and “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP”, which process is more effective for the alleviation of stress for each of the nine Enneagram Personality Types?

According to the results gathered in this comparative study, the “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP” seems to work better than the “Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP” in alleviating stress in the Enneagram Personality Types One to Eight.

 

As for the Enneagram Personality Type Nine, the “Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP” seems to fare better than the “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP” in alleviating stress.

 

  • Are there differences in how each of the nine Enneagram Personality Types rank the severity of the seven causes of stress listed in the questionnaire?

Table 4.34 has listed out in detail how differently each of the nine Enneagram Personality Types ranked the severity of the seven causes of stress listed in the questionnaire.  It is important to note that there are several respondents making up each of the Enneagram Personality Type in Table 4.34.  And when it comes to ranking the top 3 causes of stress according to its severity, each group representing the different Enneagram Personality Type has a different preference.

 

5.3.  Recommendations For Further Research

The limitation of this research is that this research is cross-sectional, and it is not possible to determine whether the reductions in the levels of stress were permanent or temporary using both the “Logical Level Alignment process of Third Generation NLP” and the “Dissociative Technique of First Generation NLP”.  Future research should therefore be taken in the form of a longitudinal study to look into the sustainability of the behavioral change.  Measurements for both processes can be collected in one, three, six months, nine and twelve months into the future.

There is still plenty of room for development in the theory, techniques, and field of applicability of Third Generation NLP and the Enneagram.  The researcher feels that there is some interesting work to be done in modifying these NLP techniques to cater for the unique “mental models” and motivations of the nine Enneagram Personality Types, instead of the two generic “one-size-fits-all” scripts used in this research.  Obviously, this would involve a whole new and elaborate controlled experiment with a larger sample population.

Also another whole new study can be conducted by researching how each Enneagram Personality Type rates the perceived severity of the different types of stress in the business environment.  With the results gathered then, the researcher hopes to be able to find a correlation between the personalities of each type and the different types of stress.  As well as how the different generations of NLP could be used to alleviate stress in the nine Enneagram Personality Types and how it will relate to job satisfaction.

 

All this would be a much larger undertaking than a Master’s Dissertation but worth thinking about as we gain more knowledge about learning how to learn and how we actually process our thoughts.

 

NOTES

1 http://www.anlp.org/  [Accessed: 11 April 2011].

 

2 http://www.psychotherapy.org.uk/  [Accessed: 11 April 2011].

 

3 http://www.seal.org.uk/  [Accessed: 11 April 2011].

 

4 http://nlprandr.org/  [Accessed: 11 April 2011].

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY (As in the Original Dissertation)

A History of Timelines in Neuro-Linguistic Programming (n.d.).  A History of Timelines in Neuro-Linguistic Programming. [Internet]. Available at: http://www.inspiritive.com.au/article_andreas_timelines.htm. [Accessed 11 April 2011].

 

Ashby, W. (1965).  An Introduction to Cybernetics. London: Methuen.

 

Ashok, S., Santhakumar, A.R. (2002).  “NLP to promote TQM for effective implementation of ISO 9000”, Managerial Auditing Journal, Vol. 17 Iss: 5, pp. 261 – 265

 

Bandler, Richard and Grinder, John. (1979).  Frogs into princes: Neuro-linguistic programming. UT: Real people press.

 

Bandler, R. and MacDonald, W. (1988).  An Insider’s Guide to Sub-Modalities. Cupertino, California: Meta Publications.

 

Barsade, S.G., & Gibson, D.E. (2007). Why does affect matter in organizations?  Academy of Management Perspectives, 36-59.

 

Bateson, G. (1972). Steps to an Ecology of Mind: Collected Essays in Anthropology, Psychiatry, Evolution, and Epistemology. University Of Chicago Press

 

Bateson, G. (1979) Mind and Nature. Glasgow: Fontana/Collins.

 

Bostic St.Clair, C. & Grinder, J. (2001).  Whispering in the Wind J & C Enterprises, Scotts Valley, CA.

 

Bredo, E. (1989), `Bateson’s Hierarchical Theory of Learning and Communication’, Educational Theory, 39:1 27 -38

 

Breslow, L. and Buell, P. (1980). “Mortality from coronary heart disease and physical activity of work in California”, The Journal of Chronic Diseases, Vol. 101, pp. 618.

 

Burns, R. B. (2000). Introduction to research methods (4th ed.). Frenchs Forest: Longman.

 

Business Programs Overview (n.d.). [Online]. Available from: http://www.enneagraminstitute.com/ConsGroup01.asp (Accessed: 11 April 2011).

 

Chernick, K. 1996. Reflections on Enneagram type: a workshop with Dr. Claudio Naranjo [Online]. Available from: http://www.enneagram.net/articles.html (accessed: 11 April 2011).

 

Cowan, P. (2006).  “The Enneagram: An Action Research project to establish the effect of introducing the Enneagram, a model of personality, as an intervention to a team.”  Unpublished Master of Science Thesis, University of Surrey

 

Daniels, D. & Price, V. (2000). The Essential Enneagram. New York: Harper Collins.

 

Dilts, R., Grinder, J., Bandler, R. & DeLozier, J. (1980) Neuro-linguistic Programming: Volume 1, the study of the structure of subjective experience, California: Meta Publications

 

Dilts, Robert (1983).  Roots of Neuro-Linguistic Programming, Meta Publications, Capitola, CA.

 

Dilts, Robert (1990). Changing Belief Systems with NLP.  Meta Publications, Capitola, CA

 

Dilts, R. (1998) ‘Presuppositions’ [Online].  Available from: http://www.nlpu.com/Articles/artic20.htm [Accessed 11 April 2011]

 

Dilts, Robert B & Judith A DeLozier (2000). Encyclopedia of Systemic Neuro-Linguistic Programming and NLP New Coding. NLP University Press.

 

Dilts, Robert B. & Dilts, Deborah Bacon (n.d.).  Identity Coaching. [Online].  Available at: http://www.nlpu.com/Identity_Coaching_Article.htm. [Accessed 11 April 2011]

 

Dowd, E., & Hingst, A. (1983). Matching therapists’ predicates: An in vivo test of effectiveness. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 57, 207-210.

 

Dowd, E., & Pety, J. (1982). Effect of counsellor predicate matching on perceived social influence and client satisfaction. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 29, 206-209.

 

Ehrmantraut, J.E. (1983). A comparison of the therapeutic relationship of counselling students trained in Neuro-Linguistic Programming versus students trained in the Carkuff model (Doctoral dissertation Abstracts International, 44, 3191B. (University Microfilms No. 83-284, 91).

 

Enneagram history and origins: The Traditional Enneagram [Online]. (n.d.). Available from: http://www.enneagraminstitute.com/history.asp (Accessed: 11 April 2011).

 

Enneagram Types (n.d). Enneagram Types. [Online] Available at: http://www.enneagramworldwide.com/explore-the-enneagram/what-is-the-enneagram/. [Accessed 11 April 2011].

 

Enneagram Type Six: The Loyal Skeptic (n.d).  Enneagram Type Six: The Loyal Skeptic. [Online] Available at: http://www.enneagramworldwide.com/explore-the-enneagram/key-themes/type6.php. [Accessed: 11 April 2011].

 

Einspruch, Eric L. and Forman, Bruce D. (1985). `Observations concerning Research Literature on Neuro-Linguistic Programming’, Journal of Counseling Psychology, Vol. 32 no. 4 pp. 589-596

 

Fairbrother, K., & Warn, J. (2003). Workplace dimensions, stress & job satisfaction. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18 (1), 8-21.

 

Fox, M.L., Dwyer, D.J., & Ganster, D.C. (1993). Effects of stressful job demands and control on physiological and attitudinal outcomes in a hospital setting. Academy of Management Journal, 36: 2: 289-318.

 

Georges D. P. (1996).  ‘Improved employee selection and staffing through meta programmes’. Career Development International 1(5): 5–9.

 

Gilboa, S., Shirom, A. Fried, Y. & Cooper, C. (2008).  A meta-analysis of work demand stressors and job performance: Examining main and moderating effects. Personnel Psychology, 61, 2, 227-272

 

Goleman, Daniel (1979).  “People who Read People”. Psychology Today, Vol.13, No. 2, July 1979.

 

Goleman, D. (1998). Vital Lies Simple Truths. The Psychology of Self-Deception. Blomsbury. London

 

Greenberg, J. and Baron, R.A. (2000). Behavior in Organizations. Prentice Hall.

 

Grinder, J. and Elgin, S. (1973).  A Guide to Transformational Grammar. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

 

Hall, M. (2010). Exceptions to NLP Presuppositions [Online].  Available from: http://www.neurosemantics.com/nlp-critiques/exceltions-to-nlp-presuppositions [Accessed 11 April 2011]

 

Hampson, Michael (2005). Head versus Heart, and our gut reactions: Mapping the different ways we engage with the world. O Books

 

Hatfield, Elaine, John T. Cacioppo & Richard L. Rapson. (1994).  Emotional Contagion.  New York: Cambridge University Press.

 

Herbert, M. (1990). Planning a research project: a guide for practitioners and trainees in the helping professions. London: Cassell.

 

How the Enneagram Personality System Works (n.d.). How the Enneagram Personality System Works. [Online] Available at: http://www.enneagraminstitute.com/intro.asp. [Accessed: 11 April 2011].

 

Humphreys, M. (2006)., “Teaching Qualitative Research Methods: I’m Beginning to See the Light”, Qualitative Research in Organization and Management, Vol.1 (3), pp. 173-188.

 

Jacobson, S. (1994).  ‘Neuro-linguistic Programming’, INFO-LINE, American Society for Training and Development, April (adapted version at http://sidjacobson.com/institute/history.html [Accessed 11 April 2011).

 

James, Tad & Woodsmall, Wyatt (1988).  Time Line Therapy and The Basics of Personality.  Meta Publications

 

Kale, S.H. & Shrivastava, S. (2003). The Enneagram System for Enhancing Workplace Spirituality. Volume 22. Number 4. Pages 308-328. Journal of Management Development. MCB University Press. Edinburgh

 

Kamineni, R. (2003).  “Enneagram: a new typology for psychographic segmentation.” University of Western Sydney, Perth, Australia.

 

Korzybski, Alfred (1958). Science and sanity: An introduction to non-Aristotelian systems and general semantics. Lakeville, Conn.: International Non-Aristotelian Library Pub. Corp.. p. xlvii.

 

Lazarus, R. S. (1966). Psychological stress and the coping process. New York: McGraw–Hill.

 

Lazarus, R., & Folkman, S. (1984).  Stress, Appraisal and Coping.  New York: Springer Publishing Company.

 

Lazarus, R.S. (1993). From psychological stress to the emotions: A history of changing outlook. Annual Review of Psychology, 44: 1-21.

 

Leedy, P.D. & Ormrod, J.E. (2005) ” Practical Research Planning and Design”, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, Pearson Education Inc.

 

Letter To The Transpersonal Community (2011).  Letter To The Transpersonal Community. [Online] Available at: http://www.arica.org/articles/trletter.cfm. [Accessed: 11 April 2011].

 

Leonova, A.B. (1998). Occupational stress, personnel adaptation, and health. In C. D Spielberger, I. G. Sarason, J. M. T. Brebner, E. Greenglass, P. Laungani, A M. O’Roak (Ed.), Stress and emotion: anxiety, anger, and curiosity. New York: Hemisphere Publication Corporation.

 

Levine, J. (1999).  The Enneagram intelligences. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.

 

Lewis, B. and Pucelik, F. (1982) Magic Demystified, Metamorphous Press.

 

Malhotra, N. K. and Birks, D. F. (2007) ”Marketing Research: An Applied Approach”, 3rd European Edition, Prentice Hall Inc.

 

McLendon, T. L. (1989).  The Wild Days: NLP 1972–1981. Cupertino, California: Meta Publications.

 

Mehrabian, Albert; Wiener, Morton (1967). “Decoding of Inconsistent Communications”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 6 (1): 109–114.

 

Miller, G. A., Galanter, E., & Pribram, K. (1960). Plans and the structure of behaviour. New York: Holt, Rhinehart & Winston.

 

Munro, L., Rodwell, J., & Harding, L. (1998). Assessing occupational stress in psychiatric nurses using the full strain model: The value of social support to nurses. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 35 (6), 339-345.

 

Nathans, H.(2003). The Enneagram At Work. Towards Personal Mastery and Social Intelligence. Scriptum. Schiedam

 

NIOSH (1999). Stress at Work. U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication Number 99-101.

 

Northwestern National Life Insurance Company [1991]. Employee burnout: America’s newest epidemic. Minneapolis, MN: Northwestern National Life Insurance Company.

 

O’Connor, J. & Seymour, J. (1990).  Introducing Neuro-Linguistic Programming: The New Psychology of Personal Excellence. Crucible Aquarian Press

 

O’Hanrahan, P. (2003). Enneagram Work. Collected Articles. London Enneagram Group. London

 

Omdahl, B. L. & O’Donnell, C. (1999). Emotional contagion, empathic concern and communicative responsiveness as variables affecting nurses’ stress and occupational commitment. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 29 (6), 1351 – 1359.

 

Parasuraman, S., & Alutto, J.A. (1984). Sources and outcomes of stress in organizational settings: Toward the development of a structural model. Academy of Management Journal, 27: 2: 330-350.

 

Pribram, Karl (1991). Brain and perception: holonomy and structure in figural processing. Hillsdale, N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

 

RHETI Sampler (n.d.) RHETI Sampler [online].  Available from: http://www.enneagraminstitute.com/file_downloads/rhetiSamplerChoicesProto.asp [Accessed 11 April 2011].

 

Riso, Don Richard; and Hudson, Russ (1999). Wisdom of the Enneagram. Bantam.

 

Robbins, A. (1986).  “Unlimited Power”.  Simon and Schuster, pp. 274-5

 

Robbins, A. (1992). “Awaken the Giant Within: How to Take Immediate Control of Your Mental, Emotional, Physical and Financial Destiny!”.  Simon and Schuster, USA, pp.165

 

Sauter S, Hurrell J, Murphy L, Levi L (1997). Psychosocial and organizational factors. In: Stellman J, ed. Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vol. 1. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office, pp. 34.1-34.77.

 

Selye, H. (1946). The general adaptation syndrome and the diseases of adaptation. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology, 6, 117-231.

 

Third Generation NLP for Leaders and Coaches (n.d.).  Third Generation NLP for Leaders and Coaches  [Internet].  Available at: http://www.nlpu.com/ThirdGenerationNLP.html. [Accessed 11 April 2011].

 

Thomson, G. & Khan, K (2008). Magic in Practice. Introducing Medical NLP: The Art and Science of Language in Healing and Health. Hammersmith Press, London.

 

Thornton, P.J. (1996).  “The physiological, psychological and work stress of primary school principals”, The International Journal of Educational Management, Vol. 10, pp. 42-55.

 

Tosey, P. and Mathison, J. (2003) Neuro-Linguistic Programming and learning theory: a response, Curriculum Journal, 14: 3: 371–388.

 

Tyson, P. D., Pongruengphant, R., & Aggarwal. B., (2001). Coping with organizational stress among nurses in Southern Ontario. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 39, 453-459.

 

Sheppard, L. 2005. Enneagram types [Online]. Available from: http://www.9points.com/types.htm (Accessed: 11 April 2011).

 

Riso, D. R., Hudson, R., Monette, M. & Tallon, R. (1998). The enneagram at work – 9 paths to management and leadership excellence. New York: McGraw- Hill.

 

Riso, D. R. & Hudson, R. (1996). Personality types – using the enneagram for self-discovery. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

 

Rheti Enneagram Test [Online]. (n.d.). Available from: http://www. enneagraminstitute.com/validated.asp (Accessed: 11 April 2011).

 

Palmer, H. (1991). The Enneagram. Understanding Yourself and Others in Your Life. Harper Collins. San Francisco

 

Palmer, H. (1995). The Enneagram In Love And Work. New York: Harper Collins.

 

Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2009). Research Methods for Business Students (5th ed.), Understanding research philosophies and approaches (pp. 106-130), Formulating the research design (pp. 138-160). Harlow: FT Prentice Hall.

 

Snelgrove, S.r. (1998). Occupational stress and job satisfaction: A comparative study of health visitors, districts nurses and community psychiatric nurses. Journal of Nursing Management, 6(2), 97-104.

 

Sonja Treven, Vojko Potocan, (2005) “Training programmes for stress management in small businesses”, Education + Training, Vol. 47 Iss: 8/9, pp.640 – 652

 

Third Generation NLP (2011). Third Generation NLP. [Online] Available at: http://www.nlpu.com/ThirdGenerationNLP.html. [Accessed 11 April 2011].

 

Wiener, N. (1965). Cybernetics or control and communication in the animal and the machine (2nd ed.). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

 

Wiltse, V.W. (2000).  Journeys in the Night.  Spiritual Consciousness, Personality Type, and the Narratives of Women Religious.  The Union Institute. Cincinnati Yalom, I. D. (1995) The Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy (4th Ed).  Basic Books. New York

 

Yin, K. R., (2003) “Case Study Research: Design and Methods”, 3rd Edition, Sage Publications

 

Appendix A: Questionnaire

Part 1:

 

Gender: Male          Female
Age:
Education:
  • Advanced Level
  • Diploma
  • Bachelor’s Degree
  • Master’s Degree
  • Professional Qualifications
Income:
  • $0 – $2500
  • $2501 – $5000
  • $5001 – $7000
Marital Status: Single      Married       Divorced       Widowed

 

 

In your opinion, please rank from 1 to 7 of the following levels for stress.

Note:

Rank 1 for LEAST severe

Rank 7 for VERY severe

 

Causes of Stress

Rank

Unemployment
Raising a family
Illness
Caring for a dependent person
Moving house
Death of a family member

Relationship or marital problems